Q. You say North of Blue began in the far north. What does that mean?
North of Blue began in February 2012 when I was invited to be filmmaker-in-residence for a month at the Klondike Institute of Art and Culture in Dawson, City, Yukon, 173 miles (278 km) from the Arctic Circle. Dawson was the site of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1896. The first thing I learned was that my parka was completely inadequate, so my host lent me a big, fire engine red, Canada Goose parka that was crazy warm and comfortable with greasy, stained sleeves. Everyday I would walk around Dawson, along the frozen Klondike and Yukon Rivers and into the woods. Locals knew the parka and often I would be greeted with “How’s the parka?”
I photographed the environment and began animating snow, ice, braided rivers, spindly trees and crows. I layered images and experimented with using photos as long, horizontal backgrounds that I could pan under the animation. One day my hosts took me on a drive up the Dempster Highway. It is the most northern road in the world and no highways intersect it. The views of this vast wilderness dotted with jagged white peaks, tiny black trees and lakes of turquoise ice were completely mesmerizing. I fell under the spell of the far north.
After a month in the Yukon, I returned to my studio in Portland, Oregon and struggled for six months to make sense of what I had created. I kept adding new scenes and moving scenes around but nothing worked and nothing coalesced. Finally, I abandoned the project. I came back to it six months later and began by removing all the browns and greens and reducing the palette to blue, white and black. I experimented and deconstructed the animation by extracting small elements from semi-realistic scenes and combining them into new compositions. Suddenly it became an abstract film and I continued to pare down each scene to only lines and shapes, like simple blue balls and abstract totemic aggregations.
Q. Why did you make an abstract feature?
Between 1985 and 2018, I made six abstract short films and an abstract iOS app (Clam Bake). I found that discarding representation in my work increased the excitement and joy of my process. I began by experimenting with images inspired by the far north, thinking that this could become a short film. As experimentation continued and the film grew longer, I realized it might become a feature. It was a very organic process.
Q. Do some people dislike abstract animation?
When I showed my abstract short films, I connected with a new audience. Many people, all over the world, love abstraction. I also found that some people will not look at abstract cinema. When humans see objects, we subconsciously label them. This creates a familiarity that can shut down further visual and intellectual exploration. Abstract animation cannot be categorized and labelled by the brain. In some people this creates a resistance to it. A multiverse of riches is available if we stay open, observe the broad view and examine the details. Relax into North of Blue and just look. You will be surprised.
Q. What were your design influences on North of Blue?
In 2014, during animation on North of Blue, I went to a lecture at Reed College about Hilma af Klint, the Swedish abstract painter who lived from 1862 to 1944. She was excluded from art history and was an exciting new discovery for me. Af Klint made over 1400 paintings and 26,000 drawings and she is the first abstract painter, although abstraction in Chinese painting goes back to the 12th century. I was profoundly inspired by af Klint’s huge, colorful paintings and the mathematical and mystical elements of her compositions
I was also influenced by pioneer abstract animator Mary Ellen Bute (1906 –1983, USA). She directed and animated 14 films and developed an oscilloscope to use for drawing. I am a big fan of the abstract films of Oskar Fischinger and Jules Engel, two friends who both worked on Disney’s Fantasia. Jules Engel was my teacher and mentor at Cal Arts and I was his teaching assistant for two years. He is a major influence in my career. Piet Mondrian (1872 – 1944, The Netherlands), a life long favorite abstract painter, influenced the palette and compositional structure of several scenes, especially his exquisite work with black grids and primary colors. I also studied the blue and white hues of classical Delftware from the Netherlands.
Q. How did you choose the blue, red, white and black color palette?
The palette of North of Blue reflects the bright white snow and ice of the Yukon and the vivid blue and turquoise of the sky, frozen lakes and rivers of the far north. I began animating with only blue, white and black. In the second year of working on North of Blue, I realized I had made 27 films but had never used blue, white and red together. My most vivid experiences as a college undergraduate were nine months of protesting the Vietnam War at UC Berkeley, so perhaps this was an aversion to flag waving nationalism. Eventually I decided it would be an interesting personal challenge to work with the colors of the American flag and 24 other national flags.
This decision was supported by my life long appreciation of the spare and elegant paintings of Dutch artist Piet Mondrian, who often used only blue, red, white, black and yellow.
These colors were deeply enjoyable to work with. When you juxtapose primary hues, you get strong vibrancy and lots of visual tension. Blue and red encompass a wide range of shades, tones and variations, particularly blue, which ranges from pale aqua, sky blue and steel gray blue to deep, nearly black ultramarine blue. The rule of thumb is to always remain within a selected palette on a project, but three years into animation I broke that rule and added a botanically influenced scene exploring shades of green, accented with fuchsia elements. I am a medicinal herbalist and plant lover and I wanted to create a new layer of botanically inspired abstract shapes to increase visual tension and attraction.
Q. How many drawings did you do for North of Blue?
The film contains about 43,250 drawings. I used Adobe Animate for the animation and drew everything by hand with a digital stylus on a medium sized Wacom tablet.
Q. How did your collaboration with the composer of North of Blue work?
Jamie Haggerty and I had collaborated on three of my films: Dew Line (2005), Relative Orbits (doc, 2004) and Utopia Parkway (1997). I was thrilled when he agreed to work on North of Blue. Jamie is an incredibly talented Renaissance man: composer, sound designer, animator and editor. These skills really help when composing for animation. Jamie would create a section of the score and then share it with me and I loved everything he composed. Sections of his music became delightful ‘ear worms’ that played in my head for days, which I consider and indicator of a powerful, successful score. We worked together during the mix, but I had only minor input. I like dubstep and I begged him to add bass drops, which he wisely limited to two. It took Jamie 11 months to compose the music and complete the sound design for North of Blue, using Ableton Live and Pro Tools.
Q. Where did the title come from?
The title was initially Blue Balls, because seven short scenes explore the transformation of three blue balls. I liked the humor and irreverence of that title but as the score was developing and the film became much more contemplative with aspects of trance, I realized the film needed a poetic title. I chose North of Blue because I liked the enigmatic juxtaposition of words and the odd aspect of setting direction from a hue. I like having one of the four directions in the title because this project began in the far north and blue is the foundation color of the film. Also my wise, elder neighbors, Inga and Joe Dubay, hated the Blue Balls title.
Q. Did you ever get discouraged, animating a feature film almost by yourself?
North of Blue was a deeply joyful project. Every morning, as I arrived at my studio, I had this delicious, expansive feeling of being in a vast, wild landscape, like the Yukon, with all the time in the world to explore new territory and experiment with unfamiliar imagery. Intriguing challenges in design, composition and content emerged organically and continually and that regenerated my focus and began new strands of inquiry. Four interns worked with me on North of Blue for two months each and I was very much inspired by their energy and creativity and collaborating with digital effects artist Brian Kinkley was thrilling. He generated a new look for the film. The entire process of making North of Blue felt like an extension of being under the spell of the far north.